Quite often it is difficult to understand on what grounds and within what timeframe it is possible to obtain Russian citizenship. Accordingly, it is necessary to carefully study the specific situation of a foreign citizen in order to determine what grounds can be used.
Globally, the procedure can be simplified and standard.
The simplified procedure for obtaining Russian citizenship can significantly reduce the waiting period for a Russian passport, but it requires the appropriate conditions.
Foreign citizens who have the grounds listed below can apply for Russian citizenship without observing the terms of residence with the status of residence permit, i.e. actually immediately after obtaining a residence permit.
Foreign citizens (if they have a residence permit) can apply for a simplified procedure for obtaining citizenship of the Russian Federation if they:
- were born on the territory of the RSFSR and had citizenship of the former USSR;
- have at least one parent who has Russian citizenship and lives on the territory of the Russian Federation;
- have been married for at least three years to a citizen of the Russian Federation residing in the territory of the Russian Federation;
- have a son or daughter who have reached the age of eighteen and are citizens of the Russian Federation;
- are citizens of the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Moldova or Ukraine;
- have a child who is a citizen of the Russian Federation: if the other parent of this child, who is a citizen of the Russian Federation, has died, is deprived of parental rights or has limited parental rights;
- received after 1 July 2002 professional education under educational programmes of secondary vocational education having state accreditation and have been working in the Russian Federation for at least one year before the day of application for Russian citizenship;
- are individual entrepreneurs and carry out business activities in the Russian Federation continuously for at least three years. At the same time, during these 3 years, the amount of taxes and fees paid and insurance contributions to the Pension and Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation is at least 1 million roubles;
- are investors whose share of the contribution to the authorized capital of a Russian legal entity is at least 10 percent continuously for three years. At the same time, the size of the authorized capital of such a legal entity must be at least 100 million roubles and during the specified period, the amount of taxes and fees paid by such a legal entity in each calendar year and insurance contributions to the Pension and Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation is at least 6 million roubles;
- carry out at least one year before the date of applying for admission to citizenship of the Russian Federation labor activity in the Russian Federation in the profession included in the list of professions of foreign citizens — qualified specialists who have the right to admission to citizenship of the Russian Federation in a simplified manner;
- recognized as native speakers of the Russian language;
- have a temporary resident permit or a residence permit, are married to a citizen of the Russian Federation and have a minor common child in this marriage;
- veterans of the Great Patriotic War with a temporary resident permit or a residence permit;
- participants in the State Programme for the Resettlement of Compatriots Living Abroad in the Russian Federation.
In the presence of one of these grounds, citizenship is issued within a period from 3 months.
The standard procedure for obtaining citizenship of the Russian Federation consists of obtaining a temporary residence permit, then obtaining a residence permit and only then citizenship of the Russian Federation.
In this case, the whole process may take more than 6 years and consists of the following steps:
- obtaining a temporary residence permit for up to 6 months;
- residence with the status of a temporary residence permit for at least 1 year;
- obtaining a residence permit for up to 6 months;
- residence with the status of residence permit at least 5 years;
- obtaining Russian citizenship from 3 months to 1 year.
The requirement of residence for at least 5 years with the status of a residence permit can be reduced to 1 year if a foreign citizen:
- has high achievements in the field of science, technology and culture;
- has a profession or qualification of interest to the Russian Federation (approved by the Government of the Russian Federation);
- received political asylum in the territory of the Russian Federation;
- recognized as a refugee in accordance with the procedure established by federal law.